Academic Integrity Code
When a student submits any work for academic credit, he or she makes an implicit claim that the work is wholly his or her own, done without the assistance of any person or source not explicitly noted, and that the work has not previously been submitted for academic credit in any area. Students are free to study and work together on homework assignments unless specifically asked not to by the instructor. In addition, students, especially international students, are encouraged to seek the editorial assistance they may need for writing assignments, term papers, and theses. The Writing and Tutorial Center staff is available to clarify issues of academic standards and to provide writing and tutorial help for all Pratt students. In the case of examinations (tests, quizzes, etc.), the student also implicitly claims that he or she has obtained no prior unauthorized information about the examination, and neither gives nor obtains any assistance during the examination. Moreover, a student shall not prevent others from completing their work.
Examples of violations include but are not limited to the following:
- The supplying or receiving of completed papers, outlines, or research for submission by any person other than the author.
- The submission of the same, or essentially the same, paper or report for credit on two different occasions.
- The supplying or receiving of unauthorized information about the form or content of an examination prior to its first being given, specifically including unauthorized possession of exam material prior to the exam.
- The supplying or receiving of partial or complete answers, or suggestions for answers, or assistance in interpretation of questions on any examination from any source not explicitly authorized. (This includes copying or reading of another student’s work or consultation of notes or other sources during examinations.)
- Plagiarism. (See statement following, which defines plagiarism.)
- Copying or allowing copying of assigned work or falsification of information.
- Unauthorized removal or unnecessary “hoarding” of study or research materials or equipment intended for common use in assigned work, including the sequestering of library materials.
- Alteration of any materials or apparatus that would interfere with another student’s work.
- Forging a signature to certify completion of a course assignment or a recommendation and the like.
Plagiarism means presenting, as one’s own, the words, the work, information, or the opinions of someone else. It is dishonest, since the plagiarist offers, as his or her own, for credit, the language or information or thought for which he or she deserves no credit.
Plagiarism occurs when one uses the exact language of someone else without putting the quoted material in quotation marks and giving its source. (Exceptions are very well known quotations, from the Bible or Shakespeare, for example.) In formal papers, the source is acknowledged in a footnote; in informal papers, it may be put in parentheses, or made a part of the text: “Robert Sherwood says...”
This first type of plagiarism, used without acknowledging the language of someone, is easy to understand and to avoid. When a writer uses the exact words of another writer, or speaker, he or she must put those words in quotation marks and give their source.
A second type of plagiarism is more complex. It occurs when the writer presents, as his or her own, the sequence of ideas, the arrangement of material, or the pattern of thought of someone else, even though he or she expresses it in his or her own words. The language may be his or hers, but he or she is presenting as his or her work, and taking credit for, the work of another. He or she is, therefore, guilty of plagiarism if he or she fails to give credit to the original author of the pattern of ideas.